The Chicago Manual of Style
Chicago or CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style) format is mostly used for literature, history, and the arts. It has two different systems for citation: a note and bibliographic (NB) system and an author-date (AD) system. The Chicago Manual of Style is currently in its seventeenth edition. For further resources, please see:

The Chicago Manual of Style
CALL NUMBER: 808.0270973 C5327S 2017 – Reference and Reference Desk

A Manual For Writers of Research papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers
CALL NUMBER: 808.066378 T929M – Reference, 2nd Floor Circulating Shelves

The Little Seagull Handbook
CALL NUMBER: 808.042 B9381L 2017 – On Reserve, at Reference Desk, on 2nd Floor Circulating Shelves
Purdue Owl
In addition to providing citation information for MLA, APA, and Chicago/Turabian formats, this resource covers grammar and the basics of writing a research paper.
The Chicago Manual of Style Online
Provides quick citation guides and answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).
The examples from this subject guide can be attributed to Purdue Owl & A Manual for Wrtiers:
The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U. 2008. The Purdue OWL Family of Site. Accessed December 12, 2018, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/
Turabian, Kate. 2013. A Manual for Writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations. 8th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
A picture of the side of various citation books - The Chicago Manual of Style, MLA handbook, The CSE Manual, etc.
Author-Date Style
  • AD (Author-Date) style uses parenthetical citations, and ends the paper with a “References” section.
  • Chicago’s AD Reference style is recommended for those in the physical, natural, and social science.
  • For the References, the format is generally as follows: Author Last, Author First Name. Date. Title. Publication Information.
  • For in-text citations, use the author’s last name, the publication date, and the page number.
  • If you state the author’s name in the text, place the publication date, in parentheses, directly after the author’s name.
  • Place the page number, in parentheses, at the end of the quote, phrase, or sentence.
Notes-Bibliography Style
  • NB (Notes-Bibliography) style uses footnotes, and ends the paper with a “Bibliography” setion,
  • Chicago’s NB Reference Style is recommended fro those in the humanities and some social sciences.
  • For the Bibliography, the format is generally as follows: Author Last, Author First Name. Title. Publication Information, Date.
  • For citations in the body of the paper, use the footnote feature. After the relevant statement, insert a footnote, starting with number “1”. In the text, the note numbers are superscripted. In the notes themselves, they are full-sixed.
  • For the footnotes citation, you create a bibliographic note, using the following general format: Author First Name Last Name, Title. (Publication Information, Date), Page Number.
  • For every footnote from the source after the first, just state the author’s last name and the page number. For example: 2. DeLanda, 9
Quotes
  • Long Quotes
    • Prose quotation of 5 or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be a blocked quote
    • Poetry quotation of 2 or more lines should be a block quote
    • There are NO quotation marks used in block quotes
    • Blocked quoted should begin a new line and should be indented and single-spaced
  • Short Quotes
    • Surround with “” quotation marks, keep inside text of paragraph.
    • Footnote markers or parenthetical citations go directly after the in-text quote.
Basic Formatting
For more instruction, please see the Chicago NB Sample Page or the Chicago AD Sample Page from Purdue Owl.

  • Paper should have 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, left, and right.
  • Paper should be in 12 pt. font, Times New Roman, double spaced.
  • Insert page numbers, starting with 1, on the top right corner of every page, starting with the page after the title page.
  • Title for title page should be 1/3 of the way down the page. Further down, write your name, class information, and date (each on their own line).
  • The bibliography or references page is on its own separate page after the paper. Title “Bibliography” or “References” center on the page, no underline, bold, or italics. Double space between entries, but single space for each entry.
  • Use a hanging indent for the citations.
Section Headings
How to differentiate between section headings:

  • Level 1: Center, Bold or Italics, Titlecase
  • Level 2: Center, Regular type, Titlecase
  • Level 3: Flush left, Bold or Italics, Titlecase
  • Level 4: Flush left, sentence-style capitalization
  • Level 5: Beginning of paragraph, Bold or Italics, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period.
Books
One Author
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. Title. Publication City: Publisher.
Example (AD)
DeLanda, Manuel. 2006. A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity. London: Continuum.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(DeLanda 2006, 36)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name. Title. Publishing City: Publisher, Year.
Example (NB)
DeLanda, Manuel. A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity. London: Continuum, 2006.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author First Last Name, Title (Publishing City: Publisher, Year), Page Number.
Example (NB)
1. Manuel DeLanda, A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity (London, Continuum, 2006), 6.
Two Authors
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name and Author First Last Name. Year. Title. Publication City: Publisher.
Example (AD)
Bernstein, Carl and Bob Woodward. 1974. All the President’s Men. New York: Simon & Schuster.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last and Author Last Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(Bernstein and Woodward 1974, 18)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name and Author First Last Name. Title. Publishing City: Publisher, Year.
Example (NB)
Bernstein, Carl and Bob Woodward. All The President’s Men. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1974.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author First Last Name and Author First Last Name, Title (Publishing City: Publisher, Year), Page Number.
Example (NB)
1. Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward. All The President’s Men (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974), 96.
Three or More

For 3 to 10 authors, include all the names in the bibliography, but only the first author’s name in the footnotes or in-text citation, followed by et al. with no common before et al. For more than 10 authors, list the first seven names in the bibliography followed by et al.

References (AD)
Author Last, First Name, Author First Last Name and Author First Last Name. Year. Title. Publication City: Publisher.
Example (AD)
McAllister, Robert and Sylvia T. Horowitz, and Raymond Gilden. 1993. Cancer. New York: Basic Books.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(McAllister 1993, 151)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name, Author First Last Name, and Author First Last Name. Title. Publishing City: Publisher, Year.
Example (NB)
McAllister, Robert and Sylvia T. Horowitz, and Raymond Gilden. Cancer. New York, Basic Books, 1993.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author First Last Name. Title (Publishing City: Publisher, Year), Page Number.
Example (NB)
1. Robert McAllister. Cancer (New York: Basic Books, 1993), 205.
Author with Editor
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. Title, edited by Editor First Last Name. Publication City: Publisher.
Example (AD)
Poston, Ted. 2000. First Draft of History, edited by Kathleen Hauke. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(Poston 2000, 241)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name. Title. Edited by Editor First Last Name. Publishing City: Publisher, Year.
Example (NB)
Poston, Ted. First Draft of History. Edited by Kathleen Hauke. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author First Last Name, Title, ed. Editor Fist Last Name. (Publishing City: Publisher, Year), Page Number.
Example (NB)
1. Poston, Ted. First Draft of History, ed. Kathleen Hauke. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000), 86.
Author with Translator
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. Title, translated by Translator First Last Name. Publication City: Publisher.
Example (AD)
Laplace, Pierre Simon. 1902. A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities, translated by Frederick Truscott and Frederick Emory. London: John Wiley & Sons.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(Laplace 1902, 7)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name. Title. Translated by Translator First Last Name. Publishing City: Publisher, Year.
Example (NB)
Laplace, Pierre Simon. A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities, translated by Frederick Truscott and Frederick Emory. London: John Wiley & Sons, 1902.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author First Last Name, Title, trans. Translator Fist Last Name. (Publishing City: Publisher, Year), Page Number.
Example (NB)
1. Pierre Simon Lapalce, A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities, trans. Frederick Truscott and Frederick Emory. (London,: John Wiley & Sons, 1902), 7.
Editor, No Author
References (AD)
Editor Last, First Name, ed. Year. Title. Publishing City: Publisher.
Example (AD)
Duncan, Greg and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, eds. 1997. Consequences of Growing Up Poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
In-text (AD)
(Editor Last Name Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(Duncan and Brooks-Gunn 1997, 196)
Bibliography (NB)
Editor Last Name, ed. Title. Edited by Editor First Last Name. Publishing City: Publisher, Year.
Example (NB)
Duncan, Greg and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, eds. Consequences of Growing Up Poor. New York, Russell Safe Foundation, 1997.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Editor First Last Name, ed., Title, ed. Editor Fist Last Name. (Publishing City: Publisher, Year), Page Number.
Example (NB)
1. Greg Duncan and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, eds., Consequences of Growing Up Poor. (New York: Russell Safe Foundation, 1997), 45.
Work In an Anthology
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. “Title of Work.” In Title of Anthology, edited by Editor First Last Name, page selection. Publishing City: Publisher.
Example (AD)
Harris, Muriel. “Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers.” In A Tutor’s Guide: Helping Writers One to One, edited by Ben Rafoth, 24-34. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Name Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(Muriel 2000, 45)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name. “Title of Work.” In Title of Anthology, edited by Editor First Last Name, Page selection. Publishing City: Publisher, Year.
Example (NB)
Harris, Muriel. “Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers.” In A Tutor’s Guide: Helping Writers One to One, edited by Ben Rafoth, 24-34. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author First Last Name, “Title of Work”, in Title of Anthology, ed. Editor First Last Name. (Publishing City: Publisher, Year), Page Number
Example (NB)
1. Greg Duncan and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, eds., Consequences of Growing Up Poor. (New York: Russell Safe Foundation, 1997), 45.
Edition Other Than First
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. Title. Edition Number. Publication City: Publisher.
Example (AD)
Helfer, M.E., R.S. Kempe, and R.D. Krugman. 1997. The Battered Child. 5th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(Helfer 1997, 25)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name. Title. Edition number. Publishing City: Publisher, Year.
Example (NB)
Helfer, M.E., R.S. Kempe, and R.D. Krugman. The Battered Child. 5th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author First Last Name, Title, Edition Number (Publishing City: Publisher, Year), Page Number.
Example (NB)
1. M.E. Helfer, The Battered Child, 5th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), 25.
Multivolume Work
References (AD)
Author or Edtior Last, First Name. Year. Title. Number of Volumes Total. Publication City: Publisher.
Example (AD)
Weiner, Philip, ed. 1968-73. Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 4 vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
In-text (AD)
(Author/Editor Last Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(Weiner 1968-73, 86)
Bibliography (NB)
Author or Editor Last, First Name. Title. Number of Volumes Total. Publishing City: Publisher, Year.
Example (NB)
Weiner, Philip, ed. Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 4 vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1968-73.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author or Editor First Last Name, Title, Number of Volumes Total (Publishing City: Publisher, Year), Page Number.
Example (NB)
1. Philip Weiner, Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 4 vols. ( New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1968-73), 86.
Foreword, Introduction, Preface, or Afterword
References (AD)
Author of Section Last, First Name. Year. Section name to Title, by or ed. First Name Last Nam, (page number selection). Publishing City: Publisher.
Example (AD)
Tanner, Tony. 1972. Introduction to Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. (pp. 7-46). New York: Penguin.
In-text (AD)
(Section Author Last Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(Tanner 1972, 8)
Bibliography (NB)
Author or Editor Last, First Name. Section name to Title by or ed. First Name Last Name, (page number selection). Publishing City: Publisher, Year.
Example (NB)
Tanner, Tony. Introduction to Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austen, 7-46. New York: Penguin, 1972.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author or Editor First Last Name, part to Title, by or ed. First Name Last Name (Publication City: Publisher, Year), Page(s)
Example (NB)
1. Tony Tanner, introduction to Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austen (New York: Penguin, 1972), 8.
Online
General
References (AD)
Author Last Name, First or Sponsor Name. Year. “Title of Content.” Associated sponsors. Accessed date. URL.
Example (AD)
Brooks, Susannah. 2011. “Longtime Library Director Reflects on a Career at the Crossroads.” University of Wisconsin-Madison News, September 1. Accessed May 14, 2012. http://www.news.wisc.edu/19704.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Year)
Example (AD)
(Brooks 2011)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last Name, First or Sponsor Name. “Title of Content.” Associated sponsors. Date. Accessed date. URL.
Example (NB)
Brooks, Susannah. “Longtime Library Director Reflects on a Career at the Crossroads.” University of Wisconsin-Madison News. Last Updated September 1, 2011. Accessed May 14, 2012. http://www.news.wisc.edu/19704.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author First Last Name or Sponsor Name, “Title”, Associated Sponsors, Date, accessed date, URL.
Example (NB)
1. Brooks, Susannah, “Longtime Library Director Reflects on a Career at the Crossroads.” University of Wisconsin-Madison News, September 1, 2011, accessed May 14, 2012, http://www.news.wisc.edu/19704.
Entire Website
References (AD)
Website Author or Sponsor Institute. Last Modify Date (if applicable). Website Title. Accessed date. URL.
Example (AD)
The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U. 2008. The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. Accessed 7 January 2019. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/
In-text (AD)
(Sponsor Name Modify Date)
Example (AD)
(Purdue OWL 2008)
Bibliography (NB)
Website Author or Sponsor Institute. Website Title. Last Modified Date (if applicable). Accessed date. URL.
Example (NB)
The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U. The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. Last modified 2008. Accessed 7 January 2019. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author First Last Name or Sponsor Name, Website Title, Last modified date, Accessed date, URL.
Example (NB)
1. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, The Purdue OWL Family of Sites, last modified 2008, accessed 7 January 2019, http://owl.english/purdue.edu/owl/
Webpage
References (AD)
Editor, author, or compiler name (if available) Last, First. Year of last modification. “Title of Webpage.” Name of Site or sponsor. Last modify date in more detail if provided. Accessed Date. URL.
Example (AD)
Lipstadt, Deborah. 2016. “History of the Holocaust.” Oxford Bibliographies. Last modified 26 May 2016. Accessed 7 January 2019. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199840731/obo-9780199840731-0127.xml.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Name Modify Date)
Example (AD)
(Lipstadt 2016)
Bibliography (NB)
Editor, author, or compiler name (if available) Last, First. “Webpage Title.” Name of site or sponsor. Last Modified Date (if applicable). Accessed date. URL.
Example (NB)
Lipstadt, Deborah. “History of the Holocaust”. Oxford Bibliographies. Last modified 26 May 2016. Accessed 7 January 2019. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199840731/obo-9780199840731-0127.xml.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Editor, author, or compiler name (if available) Last, First, “Webpage Title”, Name of site or sponsor, last modified date (if applicable), accessed date, URL.
Example (NB)
1. Lipstadt, Deborah, “History of the Holocaust”, Oxford Bibliographies, last modified 26 May 2016, accessed 7 January 2019, http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199840731/obo-9780199840731-0127.xml.
Webpage, Unknown Author
References (AD)
Website sponsor or name. Year of last modification. “Title of Webpage.” Name of Site or sponsor, Last modify date in more detail if provided. Accessed Date. URL.
Example (AD)
Google. 2018. “Privacy Policy.” Google Privacy & Terms, last modified May 25. Accessed 7 January 2019. https://policies.google.com/privacy?hl=en.
In-text (AD)
(Website/sponsor name Name Modify Date)
Example (AD)
(Google 2018)
Bibliography (NB)
Website sponsor or name. “Title of Webpage.” Name of Site or sponsor. Last modify date. Accessed Date. URL.
Example (NB)
Google. “Privacy Policy.” Google Privacy & Terms. Last modified May 25, 2018. Accessed 7 January 2019. https://policies.google.com/privacy?hl=en.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Website or sponsor name, “Webpage Title”, Name of site or sponsor, last modified date (if applicable), accessed date, URL.
Example (NB)
1. Google, “Privacy Policy”, Google Privacy & Terms, last modified May 25, 2018, accessed 7 January 2019, https://policies.google.com/privacy?hl=en.
Image from Website
References (AD)
Creator’s Last, First Name. Year. Title of Artwork. Medium if relevant. Name of Website or institution that houses the artwork. Accessed Date. URL.
Example (AD)
Goya, Francisco. 1800. The Family of Charles IV. Painting. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Accessed 7 January 2019. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/gova/hd_goya.htm.
In-text (AD)
(Creator Last Name Year)
Example (AD)
(Goya 1800)
Bibliography (NB)

Only display this source in the footnotes. Do not create a reference entry for this source.

Footnotes (NB)
Creator’s First Last Name. Title of Artwork. Year. Medium if relevant. Name of Website or institution that houses the artwork. Accessed Date. URL.
Example (NB)
Francisco Goya, The Family of Charles IV, 1800, Painting, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, accessed 7 January 2019, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/gova/hd_goya.htm.
Online Book
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. Title. Publishing city: Publisher. Retrieved from URL.
Example (AD)
Delabastita, Dirk, and Lieven D’hulst. 1990. European Shakespeares. translating Shakespeare in the romantic age. Amsterdamn: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/purdue/detail.action?docID=842928.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Name Year)
Example (AD)
(Dirk & D’hulst 1990)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name. Title. Publishing city: Publisher, Year. Retrieved from URL.
Example (NB)
Delabastita, Dirk, and Lieven D’hulst. European Shakespeares. translating Shakespeare in the romantic age. Amsterdamn: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1990. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/purdue/detail.action?docID=842928.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author First Last Name, Title (Publishing City: Publisher, Year), page number, retrieved from URL.
Example (NB)
1. Dirk Delabastita and Lieven D’hulst, European Shakespeares. translating Shakespeare in the romantic age (Amsterdamn: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1990), retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/purdue/detail.action?docID=842928.
Portion of an Online Book
References (AD)
Portion Author Last, First Name. Date. “Portion Title.” In Book Title, edited by Editor First Last Name, page selection. Publisher City: Publisher. Retrieved from URL.
Example (AD)
Binkley, Cameron. 2011. “Saving Redwoods: Clubwomen and Conservation, 1900-1925.” In California Women and Politics: From the Gold Rush to the Great Depression, edited by Robert W. Cherny, Mary Ann Irwin, and Ann Marie Wilson, 151-74. Lincoln: University of Alaska Press. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/297550653_Saving_redwoods_Clubwomen_and_conservation_1900-1925.
In-text (AD)
(Section Author Last Name Year, page number)
Example (AD)
(Binkley 2011, 151)
Bibliography (NB)
Portion Author Last, First Name. “Portion Title.” In Book Title, edited by Editor First Last Name. (Publisher City: Publisher, Year), page selection. Retrieved from URL
Example (NB)
Binkley, Cameron. “Saving Redwoods: Clubwomen and Conservation, 1900-1925.” In California Women and Politics: From the Gold Rush to the Great Depression, edited by Robert W. Cherny, Mary Ann Irwin, and Ann Marie Wilson. (Lincoln: University of Alaska Press, 2011), 151-74. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/297550653_Saving_redwoods_Clubwomen_and_conservation_1900-1925.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Portion Author First Last Name, “Title”, In Book Title, edited by Editor NFirst Last Name. (Publshing City: Publisher, Year), page number. Retrieved from URL.
Example (NB)
1.Binkley, Cameron, “Saving Redwoods: Clubwomen and Conservation, 1900-1925”, In California Women and Politics: From the Gold Rush to the Great Depression, edited by Robert W. Cherny, Mary Ann Irwin, and Ann Marie Wilson. (Lincoln: University of Alaska Press, 2011), 151. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/297550653_Saving_redwoods_Clubwomen_and_conservation_1900-1925.
Blog Post
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. “Post Title.” Blog Title, Post Month and Year. Accessed Date. URL.
Example (AD)
Becker, Gary. 2012. “Is Capitalism in Crisis?” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12. Accessed January 7, 2019. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Name Year)
Example (AD)
(Becker 2012)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name. “Post Title.” Title, Date. Accessed Date. URL.
Example (NB)
Becker, Gary. “Is Capitalism in Crisis?” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012. Accessed January 7, 2019. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.
Footnotes (NB)
Author First Last Name, “Post Title”, Blog Title, Date, accessed date, URL.
Example (NB)
Gary Becker, “Is Capitalism in Crisis?”, The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012, accessed January 7, 2019, http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.
Email
References
Do not include in references. In-text citation only
In-text
(Author First Last Name, Month Date, Year, e-mail)
Example
(John Smith, January 7, 2019, e-mail)
Bibliography
Do not include in bibliography. Footnotes only.
Footnote
1. Author First Last Name, e-mail, Month Date, Year.
Example
1. John Smith, e-mail, January 7, 2019.
Government Document Online
References (AD)
Name of Branch of Government. Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee. Year of Publication. Title. Associated information such as which congress & which session or Author First Name Last Name. Page numbers if applicable. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.
Example (AD)
US Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Homeland Security. 2002. Homeland Security Act of 2002. 107th Congress, 2d sess. HR Rep. 107-609, pt. 1. Accessed January 7, 2019. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CRPT-107hrpt609/pdf/CRPT-107hrpt609-pt1.pdf.
In-text (AD)
(Government Branch Agency Year, Page Number if applicable)
Example (AD)
(US House 2002, 187)
Bibliography (NB)
Name of Branch of Government. Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee. Title. Associated information such as which congress & which session or Author First Name Last Name, Year of Publication, page numbers if applicable. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.
Example (NB)
US Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Homeland Security. Homeland Security Act of 2002. 107th Congress, 2d sess, 2002. HR Rep. 107-609, pt. 1. Accessed January 7, 2019. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CRPT-107hrpt609/pdf/CRPT-107hrpt609-pt1.pdf.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee, Title, Associated information such as which congress & which session or Author First Name Last Name, Year of Publication, page numbers if applicable, accessed Month Day, Year, URL.
Example (NB)
Select Committee on Homeland Security, Homeland Security Act of 2002, 107th Congress, 2d sess, 2002, HR Rep. 107-609, pt. 1, accessed January 7, 2019, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CRPT-107hrpt609/pdf/CRPT-107hrpt609-pt1.pdf.
Articles
Magazine Article
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Month Date.
Example (AD)
Lepore, Jill. 2011. “Dickens in Eden.” New Yorker, August 29.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(Lepore 2011, 52)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Month Date, Year.
Example (NB)
Lepore, Jill. “Dickens in Eden.” New Yorker, August 29, 2011.
Footnote (NB)
1. Author First Last Name. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Month Date, Year, page number.
Example (NB)
1. Jill Lepore, “Dickens in Eden,” New Yorker, August 29, 2011, 52.
Article in an Online Magazine/Newspaper
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Month Date. Accessed Date. URL.
Example (AD)
Black, Robin. 2011. “President Obama: Why Don’t You Read More Women?” Salon, August 24. Accessed January 15, 2019. http://www.salon.com/books/writing/index.html?story=/books/feature/2011/08/24/obama_summer_reading.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Year)
Example (AD)
(Black 2011)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Month Date, Year. Accessed Date. URL.
Example (NB)
Black, Robin. “President Obama: Why Don’t You Read More Women?” Salon, August 24, 2011. Accessed January 15, 2019. http://www.salon.com/books/writing/index.html?story=/books/feature/2011/08/24/obama_summer_reading.
Footnote (NB)
1. Author First Last Name, “Article Title”, Magazine Title, Month Date, Year, accessed date, URL.
Example (NB)
1. Robin Black, “President Obama:Why Don’t You Read More Women?”, Salon, August 24, 2011, accessed January 15, 2019, http://www.salon.com/books/writing/index.html?story=books/feature/2011/08/24/obama_summer_reading.
Scholarly Journal Article
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Season or Month of edition): page selection.
Example (AD)
Twomey, Lisa. 2011. “Taboo or Tolerable? Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls in Post-war Spain.” Hemingway Review 30, no. 2 (Spring): 54-72.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(Twomey 2011, 56)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Season or Month of edition and Year): page selection.
Example (NB)
Twomey, Lisa. “Taboo or Tolerable? Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls in Post-war Spain.” Hemingway Review 30, no. 2 (Spring 2011): 54-72.
Footnote (NB)
1. Author First Last Name, “Article Title,” Journal Title Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Season or Month of edition and Year): page selection.
Example (NB)
1. Lisa Twomey, “Taboo or Tolerable? Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls in Post-war Spain,” Hemingway Review 30, no. 2 (Spring 2011): 54-72.
Article in an Online Journal/From a Database
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Season or Month of edition): page selection. Accessed Date. Permalink or DOI.
Example (AD)
Lewis, Judith. 2011. “‘Tis a Misfortune to be a Great Ladie’: Maternal Morality in the British Aristocracy, 1558-1959.” Journal of British Studies 37, no. 1 (January): 26-53. Accessed January 15, 2019. http://www.jstor.org/stable/176034.”
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Year, Page Number)
Example (AD)
(Lewis 2011, 32)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Season or Month of edition and Year): page selection. Accessed Date. Permalink or DOI.
Example (NB)
Lewis, Judith. “‘Tis a Misfortune to be a Great Ladie’: Maternal Morality in the British Aristocracy, 1558-1959.” Journal of British Studies 37, no. 1 (January 2011): 26-53. Accessed January 15, 2019. http://www.jstor.org/stable/176034.”
Footnote (NB)
1. Author First Last Name, “Article Title,” Journal Title Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Season or Month of edition and Year): page selection, accessed date, Permalink or DOI.
Example (NB)
1. Judith Lewis, “‘Tis a Misfortune to be a Great Ladie’: Maternal Morality in the British Aristocracy, 1558-1959”, Journal of British Studies 37, no. 1 (January 2011): 26-53, accessed January 15, 2019, http://www.jstor.org/stable/176034.”.
Newspaper Article
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name or Newspaper Title. Year. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, Month Date. Accessed date. URL.
Example (AD)
Simon, Richard. 2011. “Redistricting Could Cost California Some Clout in Washington.” Los Angeles Times, August 28. Accessed January 17, 2019. http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-california-congress-20110829,0,1873016.story.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Year)
Example (AD)
(Simon 2011)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name or Newspaper Title. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, Month Date, Year. Accessed date. URL.
Example (NB)
Simon, Richard. “Redistricting Could Cost California Some Clout in Washington.” Los Angeles Times, August 28, 2011. Accessed January 17, 2019. http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-california-congress-20110829,0,1873016.story.
Footnote (NB)
1. Author First Name Last Name or Newspaper Title, “Article Title”, Newspaper Title, Month Date, Year, accessed date, URL.
Example (NB)
1. Simon, Richard, “Redistricting Could Cost California Some Clout in Washington”, Los Angeles Times, August 28, 2011, accessed January 17, 2019, http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-california-congress-20110829,0,1873016.story.
Editorial in Newspaper, No Author
References(AD)
Newspaper Name. Year. “Title if applicable.” Editorial. Month Date.
Example (AD)
Wall Street Journal. 2003. “Of Mines and Men.” Editorial. October 24.
In-text (AD)
(Newspaper name Year)
Example (AD)
(Wall Street Journal 2003)
Bibliography (NB)
Only cite in footnotes
Example (NB)
Only cite in footnotes.
Footnotes (NB)
1. “Article Title,” editorial, Newspaper Name, Month Date, Year.
Example (NB)
1. “Of Mines and Men,” editorial, Wall Street Journal, October 24, 2003.
Letter to the Editor
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. Letter to the editor. Newspaper Name, Month Date..
Example (AD)
Ward, Christopher. 2011. Letter to the editor. New York Times, August 28.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Name Year)
Example (AD)
(Ward 2011)
Bibliography (NB)
Only cite in footnotes
Example (NB)
Only cite in footnotes.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author First Last Name, letter to the editor, Newspaper Name, Month Date, Year.
Example (NB)
1. Christopher Ward, letter to the editor, New York Times, August 28, 2011.
Book/Film Review
References (AD)
Author Last, First Name. Year. Review of Original Material Title, directed by/written by First Last Name. Periodical Title Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month Year): page selection. Accessed date. URL.
Example (AD)
Mokyr, Joel. 2011. Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson. American Historical Review 166, no. 3 (June 2011): 752-55. Accessed January 17, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.
In-text (AD)
(Author Last Year)
Example (AD)
(Mokyr 2011)
Bibliography (NB)
Author Last, First Name. Review of Original Material Title, directed by/written by First Last Name. Periodical Title Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month Year): page selection. Accessed date. URL.
Example (NB)
Mokyr, Joel. Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson. American Historical Review 166, no. 3 (June 2011): 752-55. Accessed January 17, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.
Footnotes (NB)
1. Author First Last Name, review of Original Material Title, directed by/written by First Last Name, Periodical Title Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month Year): page selection, accessed date, URL.
Example (NB)
1. Mokyr, Joel, review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson, American Historical Review 166, no. 3 (June 2011): 752-55, accessed January 17, 2019, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.
Media
General

When citing media sources in Chicago format, include as much information as is available regarding author, producer, sponsor, publication, medium, dates, site title, and any available URL. An access date is not always necessary.

Video/Film
References (AD)
Director Last, First Name, dir. Year. Film Title. Studio. Access point whether by DVD or Streaming Service or Website. Accessed date if a web service, date published or posted. URL if applicable.
Example (AD)
Cholodenko, Lisa, dir. 1998. High Art. October Films. Accessed September 6, 2011. http://nmovies.netflix.com/.
In-text (AD)
(Director Last Name Year)
Example (AD)
(Cholodenko 1998)
Bibliography (NB)
Director Last, First Name, dir. Title of Film, Studio, Year. Access Point. Access point whether by DVD or Streaming Service or Website. Accessed date if a web service, date published or posted. URL if applicable.
Example (NB)
Cholodenko, Lisa, dir. High Art. October Films, 1998. Accessed September 6, 2011. http://nmovies.netflix.com/.
Footnote (NB)
1. Film Title, directed by First Name Last Name (Studio, Year), Access Point, Accessed date if applicable or date published or posted, URL if applicable.
Example (NB)
1. High Art, directed by Lisa Cholodenko (October Films, 1998), accessed September 6, 2011, http://movies.netflix.com/.
Podcast/YouTube
References (AD)
Creator Last Name, First Name or Company/Channel. “Title of Video.” Posting Date. Access Site. Accessed date. URL.
Example (AD)
UW Tacoma Multimedia Lab. “Videography Tips and Tricks to Produce a Documentary Profile Piece.” September 30, 2015. YouTube video. https://www.youtube.comwatch?v=j_fiNRFcbwY.
In-text (AD)
(Creator Last Name or Channel Name Year)
When including a direct quote, also state the time stamp of the quote.
Example (AD)
(UW Tacoma Multimedia Lab 2015)
Bibliography (NB)
Creator Last First Name or Channel Name. “Title of Video” (video/music video/podcast). Posted Date. Access Date. URL.
Example (NB)
UW Tacoma Multimedia Lab. “Videography Tips and Tricks to Produce a Documentary Profile Piece.” (video) Posted September 30, 2015. Access January 17, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j_fiNRFcbwY.
Footnote (NB)
1. First Last Name of Creator/Channel Name, “Video Title” (video/music video/podcast), posted date, access date, URL.
Example (NB)
1. UW Tacoma Multimedia Lab, “Videography Tips and Tricks to Produce a Documentary Profile Piece” (video), posted September 30, 2015, accessed January 17, 2019, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j_fiNRFcbwY.
Television Shows
References (AD)
Series Name Year. “Episode Title,” directed by First Last Name. Season, episode. Air dateon Channel Name. Access point, Studio.
Example (AD)
Mad Men 2007. “Nixon vs. Kennedy,” directed by Alan Taylor. Season 1 episode 12. Aired October 11 on AMC. DVD, Lions Gate Television.
In-text (AD)
(Series Title Year)
When including a direct quote, also state the time stamp of the quote.
Example (AD)
(Mad Men 2007)
Bibliography (NB)
Title of program or series Season, episode, “Episode Name.” Directed by First Last Name. Air date, channel. Access point. Studio, publication or posting date.
Example (NB)
Mad Men. Season 1, episode 12, “Nixon vs. Kennedy.” Directed by Alan Taylor. Aired October 11, 2007, on AMC. DVD. Lions Gate Television, 2007, disc 4.
Footnote (NB)
1. Title of program or series, season, episode, “Title of episode,” directed by First Last Name, air date, channel, access point (Studio, publication or posting date).
Example (NB)
1. Mad Men, season 1, episode 12, “Nixon vs. Kennedy,” directed by Alan Taylor, aired October 11, 2007, on AMC, DVD (Lions Gate Television, 2007), disc 4.
Song or Album
References (AD)
Songwriter Last, First Name. Year. “Title of Song.” Album. Performers First Name Last Name. Recording date. Recording Studio, publication year. Access date if online. URL if online. Access point such as CD/MP3/Record.
Example (AD)
Beethoven, Ludwig van. 1969 and 1970. Piano Sonata no. 29 (“Hammerklavier”). Rudolf Serkin, piano. Recorded December 8-10, 1969, and December 14-15, 1970. Sony Classics, 2005. MP3.
In-text (AD)
(Songwriter Name Year)
Include timestamp or track number on album if applicable.
Example (AD)
(Beethoven 1969 and 1970)
Bibliography (NB)
Songwriter Last, First Name. “Title of Song.” Album. Performers First Name Last Name. Recording date. Recording Studio, publication year. Access date if online. URL if online. Access point such as CD/MP3/Record.
Example (NB)
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Piano Sonata no. 29 (“Hammerklavier”). Rudolf Serkin, piano. Recorded December 8-10, 1969, and December 14-15, 1970. Sony Classics, 2005. MP3.
Footnote (NB)
1. Songwriter First Last Name, “Title of Song”, Album, by Performers First Last Name, recorded Recording Date, Studio, Publication Year,Access date if online, Medium or URL.
Example (NB)
1. Ludwig van Beethoven, Piano Sonata no. 29, (“Hammerklavier”), by Rudolf Serkin, recorded December 8-10, 1969, and December 14-15, 1970, Sony Classics, 2005, MP3.
Lecture
References (Ad)
Speaker Last, First Name. Year. “Lecture Title.” Lecture Type at Panel name, Conference name, Location, City, State.
Example (AD)
Stein, Bob. 2003. “Reading and Writing in the Digital Era.” Keynote Address at Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and Writing Conference, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN.
In-text (AD)
(Speaker Last Name Year)
Example (AD)
(Stein 2003)
Bibliography (NB)
Speaker Last, First Name. “Lecture Title.” Lecture Type at Panel name, Conference name, Location, City, State, Year
Example (NB)
Stein, Bob. “Reading and Writing in the Digital Era.” Keynote Address at Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and Writing Conference, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN, 2003.
Footnote (NB)
1. Speaker First Name Last Name, “Lecture Title,” Lecture Type at Panel name, Conference Name, Location, City, State, Year.
Example (NB)
1. Bob Stein, “Reading and Writing in the Digital Era,” Keynote Address at Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and Writing Conference, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN, 2003.
Advertisement
References (AD)
Only cite in-text
Example (AD)
Only cite in-text.
In-text (AD)
(Name of Company, “Title of Advertisement,” advertisement on Source Name, Date Published, access date if applicable, URL if applicable.)
Example (AD)
(Doritos, “Healing Chips,” advertisement aired on Fox Sports, February 6, 2011, accessed September 7, 2011, http://www.foxsports.com/m/video/36896580/doritos-healing-chips.htm)
References (NB)
Only in footnotes
Example (NB)
Only in footnotes.
Footnote (NB)
1. Name of Company, “Title of Advertisement,” advertisement on Source Name, Publication Date.
Example (NB)
1. Doritos, “Healing Chips,” advertisement aired on Fox Sports, February 6, 2011.
Twitter
References (AD)
Twitter handle. Date. Twitter post. Run by associated company/full name of person. Accessed date. URL.
Example (AD)
@SenSanders. 2019, January 24. Twitter Post. Run by Bernie Sanders. Accessed January 25, 2019. https://twitter.com/SenSanders/status/1088631638073004037.
In-text (AD)
(Twitter handle, Twitter Post, Date [time], accessed date, URL.)
Example (AD)
(@SenSanders, Twitter Post, January 24, 2019 [6:56 P.M.], accessed January 25, 2019, https://twitter.com/SenSanders/status/1088631638073004037.)
Bibliography(NB)
ONly cite in footnotes
Example (NB)
Only cite in footnotes
Footnote (NB)
1. Twitter Handle, Twitter post, Date (Time), accessed date, URL.
Example (NB)
1. @SenSanders, Twitter post, January 24, 2019 (6:56 P.M.), accessed January 25, 2019, https://twitter.com/SenSanders/status/1088631638073004037.
Charts, Tables, Graphs, and Images
Label all images, charts, or graphs with Fig. #, starting at 1. The caption for a image goes above the image, beginning with its Fig. # label, then a short descriptor or title. Follow the same model for charts and graphs. Tables follow nearly an identical model, but the tables must be labeled with the Table #, stating with Table 1. Underneath the image, graph, or table, write Source: and then cite the material appropriately. If the chart was created from data from another source, say “DataaAdapted from” and then the source citation.

Example:

Figure 1: Deeply Hidden Love.
A woodblock painting of a Japanese woman from the from the series Anthology of Poems: The Love Section, titled Deeply Hidden Love.

Source: Kitagawa Utamaro. c. 1793-94) Deeply Hidden Love; from the series Anthology of Poems: The Love Section (Kasen koi no bu; Love Deeply Concealed: Great Love Themes of Classical Poetry). Accessed January 7, 2019. Retrieved from https://library.artstor.org/asset/ARMNIG_1031347.

Table 1: From Twitter to Instagram, a different #Ferguson conversation..A table from the Pew Research Center, title #Ferguson used Differently on Twitter and Instagram, based on a study ran from March 3-25, 2015. On Twitter, 86% were related to the Ferguson saga, and on Instagram, it was 38%, respectively 14% unrelated and 62% unrelated. On Twitter, 71% conveyed information about a specific event, and 36% on Instagram. 29% on Twitter were about a theme or idea, an 64% on Instagram. This table is just an example.

Source: Adapted from Hitlin, P. & J. Holcomb. (2015, April 6). From Twitter to Instagram, a different #Ferguson conversation. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/04/06/from-twitter-to-instagram-a-different-ferguson/.

Close Menu